ᒐᓭ ᒍᒼᒣᐣᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐨrᐁᐁ

ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐃᐢ ᐊ ‘ᒐᓭ ᒍᒼᒣᐣᐟ’ ᐊbᐅuᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl glᐊduᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐧrᐃᐟᑌᐣ bᕀ lᐊᐤᔦr jᐅᓇᐟᐦᐊᐣ rudᐃᐣ, llᒼ ᐧᐦᐅ ᐊᑊᐯᐊrᐁd ᐊᐣd ᐊrguᐁd ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᑊrᐃᐣᒋᑊlᐁᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ r v ᐃᐯᐁlᐁᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐃᐣ 2012᙮

jᐅᓇᐟᐦᐊᐣ rudᐃᐣ ᒐᓭ brᐃᐁf r v᙮ glᐊduᐁ1

ᒍᒼᒣᐣᑕrᕀ ᐅᐣ r v᙮ glᐊduᐁ

jᐅᓇᐟᐦᐊᐣ rudᐃᐣ, ll᙮b᙮, ll᙮ᒼ᙮
ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ dᐃrᐁᐨᑐr
ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl lᐁgᐊl ᓭrvᐃᒉᐢ ᐅf ᑐrᐅᐣᑐ
416᙮408᙮3967 ᐁxᐟ᙮ 226
ᐊlᐢᐟ@ᐁᐧb᙮ᒐ

ᐅᐣ ᐊᑊrᐃl 23, 1999, ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢuᑊrᐁᒣ ᒍurᐟ ᐅf ᒐᓇdᐊ (rᐁfᐁrrᐁd ᑐ ᐊᐢ "ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ” ᐟᐦrᐅugᐦᐅuᐟ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᓄᑌ) rᐁlᐁᐊᓭd ᐃᐟᐢ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᐃᐣ r v᙮ glᐊduᐁ ᐊ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒍuld ᐦᐊvᐁ fᐊr rᐁᐊᒋᐣg ᐃᒼᑊlᐃᒐᑎᐅᐣᐢ fᐅr ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊᐧᕀ ᐃᐣ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉd bᕀ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟᐢ᙮ ᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓴᒣ ᑎᒣ, ᐟᐦᐁ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᑊrᐁᓭᐣᐟᐢ rᐁᐊl ᒐllᐁᐣgᐁᐢ fᐅr dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl ᐊᐣd ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᓭrvᐃᒉ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁrᐢ ᐃᐣ ᑌrᒼᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅᐧrᐠ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᒼuᐢᐟ dᐅ ᐃᐣ ᐅrdᐁr ᑐ ᒪᑫ ᐟᐦᐁ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᒣᐊᓂᐣgful fᐅr ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᐨlᐃᐁᐣᐟᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓭ rᐊᐃᓭᐢ ᒪᐣᕀ ᐃᐢᐢuᐁᐢ, bᐅᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁᐅrᐁᑎᒐl ᐊᐣd ᑊrᐊᐨᑎᒐl᙮ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ brᐃᐁf ᓄᑌ, ᐃ ᐃᐧll ᒍᐣᒉᐣᐟrᐊᑌ ᐅᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓱᒣ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᓯgᓂfᐃᒐᐣᐟ ᐊᐢᐯᐨᐟᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ rᐁlᐊᑌ ᐢᐯᒋfᐃᒐllᕀ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮1

bᐊᐨᐠgrᐅuᐣd

ᐟᐦᐁ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ dᐁᐊlᐢ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐃᐣᑌrᑊrᐁᑕᑎᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl ᒍdᐁ ᐅf ᒐᓇdᐊ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ, ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐊᐧᐢ ᐸrᐟ ᐅf ᐊ ᒍᒼᑊrᐁᐦᐁᐣᓯvᐁ ᓭrᐃᐁᐢ ᐅf ᐊᒣᐣdᒣᐣᐟᐢ ᒪdᐁ ᐃᐣ 1996 ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg lᐊᐤ ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ, ᐢᑕᑌᐢ:

718᙮2 ᐊ ᒍurᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᒼᐳᓭᐢ ᐊ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᐢᐦᐊll ᐊlᓱ ᑕᑫ ᐃᐣᑐ ᒍᐣᓯdᐁrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐅllᐅᐃᐧᐣg ᑊrᐃᐣᒋᑊlᐁᐢ: (ᐁ) ᐊll ᐊvᐊᐃlᐊblᐁ ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐅᐟᐦᐁr ᐟᐦᐊᐣ ᐃᒼᑊrᐃᓱᐣᒣᐣᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊrᐁ rᐁᐊᓱᓇblᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐢᐦᐅuld bᐁ ᒍᐣᓯdᐁrᐁd fᐅr ᐊll ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ, ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊr ᐊᐟᑌᐣᑎᐅᐣ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐢᑕᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ 1996 ᐊᒣᐣdᒣᐣᐟᐢ rᐁᑊrᐁᓭᐣᐟ ᐊ ᒐᐣgᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊᐧᕀ judgᐁᐢ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᐨ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᐢ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 33)᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐃrᐢᐟ ᐸrᐟ ᐅf ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) dᐃrᐁᐨᐟᐢ judgᐁᐢ ᑐ lᐅᐅᐠ ᐊᐟ ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁᐢ ᑐ jᐊᐃl fᐅr ᐊll ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮ ᐃᐣ dᐅᐃᐣg ᓱ, ᐟᐦᐁ judgᐁ ᐃᐧll lᐅᐅᐠ ᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊr ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr bᐁfᐅrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐢurrᐅuᐣdᐃᐣg ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣᒉ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐯrᓱᐣ ᐃᐢ ᒐrgᐁd᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᓄᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒐᓇdᐊ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉᐢ ᒧrᐁ ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᑐ jᐊᐃl ᐯr ᒐᐱᑕ ᐟᐦᐊᐣ ᐊll buᐟ ᐅᓀ ᐅr ᑐᐧ ᐅᐟᐦᐁr ᒍuᐣᐟrᐃᐁᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐁᐧᐢᑌrᐣ ᐅᐧrld᙮ ᐃᐣ ᒪᑭᐣg ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐅbᓭrvᐊᑎᐅᐣ, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐨlᐁᐊrlᕀ ᐃᐣdᐃᒐᑎᐣg ᐃᐟᐢ ᒍᐣᒉrᐣ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐟrᐁᐣd (ᐸrᐊ 52)᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ’ᐢ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣgᐢ rᐁgᐊrdᐃᐣg ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ

ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁᐢᐯᐨᐟ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅvᐁr ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐢᑕᑌᐢ:

ᐃf ᐅvᐁrrᐁlᐃᐊᐣᒉ uᐳᐣ ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐢ ᐊ ᑊrᐅblᐁᒼ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ gᐁᓀrᐊl ᐳᑊulᐊᑎᐅᐣ, ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐅf ᒼuᐨ grᐁᐊᑌr ᒍᐣᒉrᐣ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒐᓇdᐃᐊᐣᐢ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 58)

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐟᐦᐁᐣ gᐅᐁᐢ ᑐ ᐅᐣ ᑐ rᐁᐢᑕᑌ ᐃᐟᐢ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣg ᐃᐣ r v᙮ ᐃᐧllᐃᐊᒼᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ fᐊᒉd bᕀ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ ᐁxᑌᐣdᐢ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ lᐁgᐊl rᐁᐊlᒼ: [ᐟ]ᐦᐁrᐁ ᐃᐢ ᐁvᐃdᐁᐣᒉ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐃᐧdᐁᐢᑊrᐁᐊd rᐊᒋᐢᒼ ᐦᐊᐢ ᐟrᐊᐣᐢlᐊᑌd ᐃᐣᑐ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒥᐨ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 61)᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ gᐅᐁᐢ furᐟᐦᐁr ᐟᐦᐊᐣ ᐃᐟ dᐃd ᐃᐣ ᐃᐧllᐃᐊᒼᐢ, ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, bᕀ ᐁᐣdᐅrᓯᐣg ᒍᐣᐨluᓯᐅᐣᐢ rᐁᐊᒉd bᕀ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐃᐣquᐃrᕀ ᐅf ᒪᓂᑐbᐊ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ rᐅᔭl ᒍᒼᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣ ᐅᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁᐢ᙮ ᐃᐣ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊᐨᒉᑊᐟᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐃrᐢᐟ ᒍᐣᐨluᓯᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ rᐅᔭl ᒍᒼᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣ’ᐢ rᐁᐳrᐟ ᐅᐣ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl lᐊᐤ "brᐃdgᐃᐣg ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨulᐟurᐊl dᐃvᐃdᐁ” ᐟᐦᐊᐟ:

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓇdᐃᐊᐣ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ ᐦᐊᐢ fᐊᐃlᐁd ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁᐢ ᐅf ᒐᓇdᐊ ‑‑ fᐃrᐢᐟ ᓇᑎᐅᐣᐢ, ᐃᐣuᐃᐟ ᐊᐣd ᒼéᑎᐢ ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ, ᐅᐣ‑rᐁᓭrvᐁ ᐊᐣd ᐅff‑rᐁᓭrvᐁ, urbᐊᐣ ᐊᐣd rurᐊl ‑‑ ᐃᐣ ᐊll ᑌrrᐃᑐrᐃᐊl ᐊᐣd gᐅvᐁrᐣᒣᐣᑕl jurᐃᐢdᐃᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐃᐣᒋᐸl rᐁᐊᓱᐣ fᐅr ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐨruᐢᐦᐃᐣg fᐊᐃlurᐁ ᐃᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ fuᐣdᐊᒣᐣᑕllᕀ dᐃffᐁrᐁᐣᐟ ᐅᐧrld vᐃᐁᐤᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐊᐣd ᓄᐣ‑ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁᐢᐯᐨᐟ ᑐ ᐢuᐨ ᐁlᐁᒣᐣᑕl ᐃᐢᐢuᐁᐢ ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢubᐢᑕᐣᑎvᐁ ᒍᐣᑌᐣᐟ ᐅf juᐢᑎᒉ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᐢ ᐅf ᐊᒋᐁvᐃᐣg juᐢᑎᒉ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 62)

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊlᓱ ᒪᑫᐢ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ vᐁrᕀ ᓯgᓂfᐃᒐᐣᐟ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣg ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁgᐊrd ᑐ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐃᓱᐣ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ:

᙮᙮᙮ ᐊᐢ ᐦᐊᐢ bᐁᐁᐣ ᐁᒼᑊᐦᐊᓯzᐁd rᐁᐯᐊᑌdlᕀ ᐃᐣ ᐢᐟudᐃᐁᐢ ᐊᐣd ᒍᒼᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣ rᐁᐳrᐟᐢ, ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐊrᐁ, ᐊᐢ ᐊ rᐁᐢulᐟ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁᓭ uᓂquᐁ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒥᐨ ᐊᐣd bᐊᐨᐠgrᐅuᐣd fᐊᐨᑐrᐢ, ᒧrᐁ ᐊdvᐁrᓭlᕀ ᐊffᐁᐨᑌd bᕀ ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᐣd lᐁᐢᐢ lᐃᑫlᕀ ᑐ bᐁ "rᐁᐦᐊbᐃlᐃᑕᑌd” ᐟᐦᐁrᐁbᕀ, bᐁᒐuᓭ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐃᐣᑌrᐣᒣᐣᐟ ᒥlᐃᐁu ᐃᐢ ᐅfᑌᐣ ᐨulᐟurᐊllᕀ ᐃᓇᑊᑊrᐅᑊrᐃᐊᑌ ᐊᐣd rᐁgrᐁᐟᑕblᕀ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ ᑐᐊᐧrdᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᒼ ᐃᐢ ᓱ ᐅfᑌᐣ rᐊᒼᐸᐣᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐯᓇl ᐃᐣᐢᑎᐟuᑎᐅᐣᐢ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 68)

ᐊfᑌr rᐁvᐃᐁᐃᐧᐣg ᒪᐣᕀ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢᐟudᐃᐁᐢ ᐅᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅvᐁr ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ rᐁᐊᒉᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐅllᐅᐃᐧᐣg ᐃᒼᐳrᑕᐣᐟ ᒍᐣᐨluᓯᐅᐣ:

ᐟᐦᐁᓭ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣgᐢ ᐨrᕀ ᐅuᐟ fᐅr rᐁᒍgᓂᑎᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᒪgᓂᐟudᐁ ᐊᐣd grᐊvᐃᐟᕀ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅblᐁᒼ, ᐊᐣd fᐅr rᐁᐢᐳᐣᓭᐢ ᑐ ᐊllᐁvᐃᐊᑌ ᐃᐟ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐃgurᐁᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐢᑕrᐠ ᐊᐣd rᐁflᐁᐨᐟ ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᒪᕀ fᐊᐃrlᕀ bᐁ ᑌrᒣd ᐊ ᐨrᐃᓯᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓇdᐃᐊᐣ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ drᐊᐢᑎᐨ ᐅvᐁrrᐁᑊrᐁᓭᐣᑕᑎᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁᐢ ᐃᐧᐟᐦᐃᐣ bᐅᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓇdᐃᐊᐣ ᑊrᐃᓱᐣ ᐳᑊulᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ rᐁvᐁᐊlᐢ ᐊ ᓴd ᐊᐣd ᑊrᐁᐢᓯᐣg ᓱᒋᐊl ᑊrᐅblᐁᒼ᙮ ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ rᐁᐊᓱᓇblᐁ ᑐ ᐊᐢᐢuᒣ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐸrlᐃᐊᒣᐣᐟ, ᐃᐣ ᓯᐣglᐃᐣg ᐅuᐟ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ fᐅr dᐃᐢᑎᐣᐨᐟ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐟrᐁᐊᐟᒣᐣᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐢ᙮718᙮2(ᐁ), ᐃᐣᑌᐣdᐁd ᑐ ᐊᐟᑌᒼᑊᐟ ᑐ rᐁdrᐁᐢᐢ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᓱᒋᐊl ᑊrᐅblᐁᒼ ᑐ ᓱᒣ dᐁgrᐁᐁ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃᓯᐅᐣ ᒪᕀ ᑊrᐅᐯrlᕀ bᐁ ᓭᐁᐣ ᐊᐢ ᐸrlᐃᐊᒣᐣᐟ’ᐢ dᐃrᐁᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᑐ ᒣᒼbᐁrᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ judᐃᒋᐊrᕀ ᑐ ᐃᐣquᐃrᐁ ᐃᐣᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐuᓭᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅblᐁᒼ ᐊᐣd ᑐ ᐁᐣdᐁᐊvᐅur ᑐ rᐁᒣdᕀ ᐃᐟ, ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐁxᑌᐣᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊ rᐁᒣdᕀ ᐃᐢ ᐳᐢᓯblᐁ ᐟᐦrᐅugᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᐢ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ 64)

ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒣᐊᓂᐣg ᐅf ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ)

gᐃvᐁᐣ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣgᐢ, ᐧᐦᐊᐟ dᐃᐢᑎᐣguᐃᐢᐦᐁᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ frᐅᒼ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐊll ᐅᐟᐦᐁr ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᒼᐸᐨᐟ dᐅ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ dᐃᐢᑎᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐦᐊvᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᐢ?

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐃdᐁᐣᑎfᐃᐁᐢ ᑐᐧ uᓂquᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ:

1) ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒥᐨ fᐊᐨᑐrᐢ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐅfᑌᐣ ᑊlᐊᕀ ᐊ ᐸrᐟ ᐃᐣ brᐃᐣgᐃᐣg ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢᐯᒋfᐃᐨ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr bᐁfᐅrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟᐢ; ᐊᐣd

2) ᐟᐦᐁ ᐟᕀᐯᐢ ᐅf ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᒉᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒥgᐦᐟ bᐁ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᑊrᐃᐊᑌ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr bᐁᒐuᓭ ᐅf ᐦᐃᐢ ᐅr ᐦᐁr ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐦᐁrᐃᑕgᐁ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 66)᙮

ᐧᐦᐃlᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᓄᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒪᐣᕀ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐦᐊvᐁ ᐢuffᐁrᐁd dᐃffᐃᐨulᐟ ᓱᒋᐊl ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ, ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐅfᑌᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᐢulᐟ ᐅf dᐃrᐁᐨᐟ ᐊᐣd ᐅvᐁrᐟ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ ᑐᐊᐧrdᐢ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐣ gᐁᓀrᐊl᙮ gᐃvᐁᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐁxᐯrᐃᐁᐣᒉ ᐅf ᐢuᐨ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᒍᐣᐨludᐁᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊ judgᐁ ᐢᐦᐅuld bᐁ lᐁᐢᐢ lᐃᑫlᕀ ᑐ ᐊᐢᐢuᒣ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐟᓭlf ᐟᐦᐁ ᓱurᒉ ᐅf dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ ᑐᐊᐧrdᐢ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐅᐧuld bᐁ ᐊblᐁ ᑐ ᐊᐢᓯᐢᐟ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐃᐣ ᒐᐣgᐃᐣg ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl bᐁᐦᐊvᐃᐅur, ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐣ fᐊᐨᐟ, ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᒥgᐦᐟ rᐁᐢulᐟ ᐃᐣ grᐁᐊᑌr ᐦᐊrdᐢᐦᐃᑊ ᑐ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐣ ᑐ ᓄᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ (ᐸrᐊ 68)᙮

ᐊᐢ ᐊ ᑊrᐊᐨᑎᒐl ᒪᐟᑌr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ rᐁquᐃrᐁ ᐁᐊᐨ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᑐ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg judgᐁ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐊ ᐦᐃᐢᑐrᕀ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ fᐊᒉd bᕀ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ᙮ rᐊᐟᐦᐁr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐢᑕᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ judgᐁᐢ ᒼuᐢᐟ ᑕᑫ judᐃᒋᐊl ᓄᑎᒉ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁᓭ fᐊᐨᑐrᐢ (ᐸrᐊ 83)᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑌrᒼ "judᐃᒋᐊl ᓄᑎᒉ” ᒣᐊᐣᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ judgᐁᐢ ᒐᐣ rᐁlᕀ uᐳᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣgᐢ ᐅf ᐅᐟᐦᐁr ᒍᒼᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢuᑊrᐁᒣ ᒍurᐟ, ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᐅᐤᐣ ᐠᓄᐤlᐁdgᐁ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ gᐁᓀrᐊl ᐦᐃᐢᑐrᕀ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁᐢ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁgᐊrd ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊᐧᕀ ᐃᐣ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐦᐊvᐁ bᐁᐁᐣ ᐟrᐁᐊᑌd ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᒪᑫᐢ ᐃᐟ ᐨlᐁᐊr, ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, ᐟᐦᐊᐟ judᐃᒋᐊl ᓄᑎᒉ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᒐᓭ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᐊllᐅᐤ ᐟᐦᐁ judgᐁ ᑐ rᐁᐊᐨ ᐊᐣᕀ ᒍᐣᐨluᓯᐅᐣ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁgᐊrd ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐟrᐁᐊᐟᒣᐣᐟ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ, rᐊᐟᐦᐁr ᐟᐦᐁ judgᐁ ᒼuᐢᐟ rᐁᒍgᓂzᐁ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐅvᐁrᐟ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑐrᕀ ᐊᐨᐟᐢ ᐁᐧrᐁ ᓄᐟ ᐅᐣlᕀ dᐃrᐁᐨᑌd ᐊᐟ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐸᐢᐟ, buᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ, bᐅᐟᐦ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒥᐨ ᐊᐣd dᐃrᐁᐨᐟ, ᒍᐣᑎᐣuᐁᐢ ᑐ ᐁxᐃᐢᐟ ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ ᑐdᐊᕀ᙮

ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐃᒼᐳrᑕᐣᐟ ᑐ ᓄᑌ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐢᑕᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᐅf ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2᙮ (ᐁ) ᐊᑊᑊlᕀ ᑐ ᐊll ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮ ᐃᐟ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᒪᐟᑌr ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐯrᓱᐣ ᐃᐢ ᐊ ᐢᑕᐟuᐢ ᐅr ᓄᐣ ᐢᑕᐟuᐢ ᐃᐣdᐃᐊᐣ, ᒣᑎᐢ ᐅr ᐃᐣuᐃᐟ ᐯrᓱᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᑊᑊlᐃᐁᐢ ᐁquᐊllᕀ ᑐ ᐊll (ᐸrᐊ 90)᙮ ᓯᒥlᐊrlᕀ, ᐃᐟ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᒪᐟᑌr ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐯrᓱᐣ lᐃvᐁᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐊᐣ urbᐊᐣ ᐊrᐁᐊ ᐊᐣd/ᐅr ᐦᐊᐢ bᐁᐁᐣ ᑐᑕllᕀ ᐁᐢᐟrᐊᐣgᐁd frᐅᒼ ᐦᐃᐢ ᐅr ᐦᐁr ᐨulᐟurᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐢᑎll ᒼuᐢᐟ bᐁ ᐊᑊᑊlᐃᐁd (ᐸrᐊ 91)᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᒼuᐢᐟ bᐁ ᐊᑊᑊlᐃᐁd ᐃᐣ ᐊll ᒐᓭᐢ ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐃdᐁᐣᑎfᐃᐁᐢ ᐦᐃᒼ ᐅr ᐦᐁrᓭlf ᐊᐢ ᐊᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯrᓱᐣ ᐊᐣd ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁᐢ ᓱᒣ ᐁvᐃdᐁᐣᒉ ᐊᐢ ᑐ ᐦᐅᐤ ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐃdᐁᐣᑎᐟᕀ ᐦᐊᐢ ᐦᐊd ᐊ ᐸrᐟ ᑐ ᑊlᐊᕀ ᐃᐣ uᐣdᐁrᐢᑕᐣdᐃᐣg ᐧᐦᕀ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐊrᐁ bᐁfᐅrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ᙮ ᐃ ᐅᐧuld ᐢuggᐁᐢᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ vᐁrᕀ fᐊᐨᐟ ᐅf ᐁᐢᐟrᐊᐣgᐁᒣᐣᐟ frᐅᒼ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐃᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐊᐣd ᐅf ᐃᐟᓭlf ᐢuffᐃᒋᐁᐣᐟ ᑐ ᐊllᐅᐤ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg judgᐁ ᑐ ᐃᒼᒣdᐃᐊᑌlᕀ ᐁᒼbᐊrᐠ uᐳᐣ ᐊ ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᐃᐣquᐃrᕀ᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᒍᐣd ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊddrᐁᐢᓭᐢ rᐁlᐊᑌᐢ ᑐ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑊrᐊᐨᑎᒉᐢ ᐊᐣd ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᓭᐢ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ rᐁlᐁvᐊᐣᐟ ᑐ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ brᐅᐊdlᕀ ᑌrᒼᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᒉᐢ "rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ” ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᒉᐢ᙮ ᐃᐟ dᐁᐢᐨrᐃbᐁᐢ rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᐊᐢ:

ᐊᐣ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᐨ ᑐ rᐁᒣdᔨᐣg ᐨrᐃᒣ ᐃᐣ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ uᐣdᐁrᐢᑐᐅd ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊll ᐟᐦᐃᐣgᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐃᐣᑌrrᐁlᐊᑌd ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐨrᐃᒣ dᐃᐢruᑊᐟᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐦᐊrᒧᐣᕀ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐁxᐃᐢᑌd ᑊrᐃᐅr ᑐ ᐃᐟᐢ ᐅᐨᐨurrᐁᐣᒉ, ᐅr ᐊᐟ lᐁᐊᐢᐟ ᐧᐦᐃᐨ ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ fᐁlᐟ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᐁxᐃᐢᐟ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᑊrᐃᐊᑌᓀᐢᐢ ᐅf ᐊ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊr ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐢ lᐊrgᐁlᕀ dᐁᑌrᒥᓀd bᕀ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓀᐁdᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ vᐃᐨᑎᒼᐢ, ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ, ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐅᐨuᐢ ᐃᐢ ᐅᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐦuᒪᐣ bᐁᐃᐣgᐢ ᐨlᐅᓭlᕀ ᐊffᐁᐨᑌd bᕀ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒣ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ 71)᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᒪᑫᐢ ᐃᐟ ᐨlᐁᐊr ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐃᐣᑌᐣdᐁd ᑐ ᐊddrᐁᐢᐢ rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᒍᐣᒉrᐣᐢ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᓄᐟ bᐁ ᓭᐁᐣ ᐊᐢ ᓀᒉᐢᓴrᐃlᕀ ‘lᐃgᐦᑌr’ ᐟᐦᐊᐣ ᐊ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᐅf ᐃᒼᑊrᐃᓱᐣᒣᐣᐟ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊlᓱ ᒋᑌᐢ ᐊrᑎᐨlᐁᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐢuggᐁᐢᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐣ ᓱᒣ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ, ᐊ rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᒥgᐦᐟ ᐃᒼᐳᓭ grᐁᐊᑌr burdᐁᐣᐢ ᐅᐣ ᐊᐣ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐟᐦᐊᐣ jᐊᐃl, ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁrᐁ ᐊrᐁ ᑊrᐅbᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᑌrᒼᐢ ᐃᐣᒍrᐳrᐊᑌd ᐃᐣᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 72)᙮

ᑕlᐠ ᐅf rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᐊᒉᐢ ᑐ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg uᐢuᐊllᕀ ᐢuggᐁᐢᐟᐢ ᐊᐨᑎvᐃᑎᐁᐢ ᐢuᐨ ᐊᐢ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᒋrᐨlᐁᐢ ᐅr ᐢᐯᒋfᐃᐨ ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ruᐣ ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐃᐢ ᒐrᐁful ᑐ ᐳᐃᐣᐟ ᐅuᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐧᐦᐃlᐁ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᐟᕀᐯᐢ ᐅf ᐃᓂᑎᐊᑎvᐁᐢ ᒉrᑕᐃᐣlᕀ fᐊll ᐃᐧᐟᐦᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᒍᐣᒉᑊᐟ, ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉᐢ ᒐᐣ bᐁ ᐨrᐊfᑌd bᕀ ᐊ judgᐁ ᐊlᐅᓀ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒣᐁᐟ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ gᐅᐊlᐢ ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᐃᒼᐳrᑕᐣᒉ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐳᐃᐣᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁrᐁ ᐊrᐁ fᐁᐤ ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ ᐊᐨᐟuᐊllᕀ fuᐣᐨᑎᐅᓂᐣg ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ ᐃᐣ urbᐊᐣ ᐊrᐁᐊᐢ ᐊᐣd ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᒋrᐨlᐁᐢ ᐦᐊvᐁ ᓄᐟ bᐁᒍᒣ ᒍᒼᒧᐣ fᐃxᐟurᐁᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟrᐅᐅᒼᐢ ᐅf ᒐᓇdᐊ᙮ ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊᑊᑊlᐃᒐᑎᐅᐣ ᐅf ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᐊᐧᐢ rᐁᐢᐟrᐃᐨᑌd ᑐ ᐅᐣlᕀ ᐟᐦᐅᓭ ᐟᕀᐯᐢ ᐅf ᐃᓂᑎᐊᑎvᐁᐢ, ᐟᐦᐁᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅᒥᓭ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐅᐧuld rᐃᐣg ᐦᐅllᐅᐤ fᐅr ᐟᐦᐁ vᐊᐢᐟ ᒪjᐅrᐃᐟᕀ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮ ᑫᐁᐱᐣg ᐟᐦᐃᐢ fᐊᐨᐟ ᐃᐣ ᒥᐣd, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁᐢ ᐊ brᐅᐊdᐁr vᐃᐁᐤ ᐅf ᐦᐅᐤ rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᒍᐣᒉᑊᐟᐢ ᒍuld bᐁ ᐊᐨᒍᒼᒧdᐊᑌd ᐃᐣ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg:

ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg judgᐁᐢ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᓄᐟ ᒍᐣᐨludᐁ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᓭᐣᒉ ᐅf ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁᐢ ᐢᐯᒋfᐃᐨ ᑐ ᐊᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐁlᐃᒥᓇᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᐊbᐃlᐃᐟᕀ ᑐ ᐃᒼᐳᓭ ᐊ ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᑕᑫᐢ ᐃᐣᑐ ᐊᐨᒍuᐣᐟ ᑊrᐃᐣᒋᑊlᐁᐢ ᐅf rᐁᐢᑐrᐊᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᓀᐁdᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐸrᑎᐁᐢ ᐃᐣvᐅlvᐁd᙮ rᐊᐟᐦᐁr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᐳᐃᐣᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐅᓀ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ uᓂquᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐃᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ‑bᐊᓭd ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᒍᐃᐣᒋdᐁ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᐣᒉᑊᐟ ᐅf ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᓀᐁdᐢ ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐊᐣd ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᑎᐁᐢ᙮ ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐅfᑌᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᓀᐃᐟᐦᐁr ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᓄr ᐟᐦᐁᐃr ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᑎᐁᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐁᐧll ᓭrvᐁd bᕀ ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐣg ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ, ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ fᐅr lᐁᐢᐢ ᓭrᐃᐅuᐢ ᐅr ᓄᐣ vᐃᐅlᐁᐣᐟ ᐅffᐁᐣᒉᐢ᙮ ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐊrᐁ rᐁᐊᓱᓇblᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒋrᐨuᒼᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ, ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐢᐦᐅuld bᐁ ᐃᒼᑊlᐁᒣᐣᑌd᙮ ᐃᐣ ᐊll ᐃᐣᐢᑕᐣᒉᐢ, ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᑊrᐃᐊᑌ ᑐ ᐊᐟᑌᒼᑊᐟ ᑐ ᐨrᐊfᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑊrᐅᒉᐢᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐃᒼᐳᓭd ᐃᐣ ᐊᐨᒍrdᐊᐣᒉ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯrᐢᐯᐨᑎvᐁ᙮ (ᐸrᐊ 74)

ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᓭᐣᓭ, ᐊ ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ bᐊᓭd ᓴᐣᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐢ ᐅᓀ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊddrᐁᐢᓭᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓀᐁdᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr, ᐊᐣd ᐯrᐦᐊᑊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ vᐃᐨᑎᒼ ᐊᐣd brᐅᐊdᐁr ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll᙮ ᐃᐟ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ rᐁquᐃrᐁ fᐅrᒪlᐃzᐁd ᐊᐨᒉᑊᑕᐣᒉ bᕀ ᐟᐦᐁ lᐅᒐl ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ dᐁfᐃᓀd ᐃᐟ ᒥgᐦᐟ ᓄᐟ ᐁvᐁᐣ ᐃᐣvᐅlvᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐊᐟ ᐊll᙮ fᐅr ᐁxᐊᒼᑊlᐁ, ᐊ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᒥgᐦᐟ rᐁquᐃrᐁ ᐊᐟᑌᐣdᐊᐣᒉ ᐊᐟ ᐊ ᐟrᐁᐊᐟᒣᐣᐟ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ ᐅr ᐸrᑎᒋᐸᑎᐅᐣ ᐃᐣ ᒍuᐣᓭllᐃᐣg᙮ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ ᒥgᐦᐟ bᐁ dᐁlᐃvᐁrᐁd bᕀ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐊgᐁᐣᒋᐁᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐃᐣ gᐁᓀrᐊl ᐃᐟ ᐅᐧuld bᐁ ᑊrᐁfᐁrᐊblᐁ ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐁᐧrᐁ; ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᓄᐟ bᐁ ᐊ rᐁquᐃrᐁᒣᐣᐟ fᐅr ᐊ ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ᙮ ᓯᐣᒉ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᑊᑊlᕀ ᑐ ᐊll ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ, ᐃᐟ ᐅᐧuld ᓄᐟ bᐁ rᐃgᐦᐟ ᑐ dᐁᐣᕀ ᐊᐣ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐊᐨᒉᐢᐢ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ bᐁᒐuᓭ ᐟᐦᐁrᐁ ᐃᐢ ᓄ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐅf ᐊᐣᕀ ᓯzᐁ ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐦᐁ ᐅr ᐢᐦᐁ ᐃᐢ bᐁᐃᐣg ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉd ᐅr bᐁᒐuᓭ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᐳᐢᓭᐢᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭrvᐃᒉᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᓀᐁdᐢ᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᒪᑫᐢ ᐃᐟ ᐨlᐁᐊr ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ fᐊᐨᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐊᐣ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐃᐢ ᐊᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯrᓱᐣ ᐃᐧll ᓄᐟ ᐊuᑐᒪᑎᒐllᕀ rᐁᐢulᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐊ ᓄᐣ ᑊrᐃᓱᐣ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊlᓱ ᐃᐣdᐃᒐᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒧrᐁ vᐃᐅlᐁᐣᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣᒉ, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒧrᐁ lᐃᑫlᕀ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᐃᐧll ᐃᐣvᐅlvᐁ ᐃᒼᑊrᐃᓱᐣᒣᐣᐟ, ᐊlᐟᐦᐅugᐦ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐃᐣdᐃᒐᑌᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐯrᐦᐊᑊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑌrᒼ ᐅf ᐃᒼᑊrᐃᓱᐣᒣᐣᐟ ᒥgᐦᐟ bᐁ lᐁᐢᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐅf ᐊᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐊᐢ ᐅᑊᐳᓭd ᑐ ᐊ ᓄᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr (ᐸrᐊ᙮ 79)᙮

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐllᐁᐣgᐁᐢ ᐃᐣ ᒪᑭᐣg ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐨᑎᐅᐣ ᐅᐧrᐠ ᐃᐣ ᑊrᐊᐨᑎᒉ

ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐢuggᐁᐢᐟᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐅrdᐁr ᑐ ᐨrᐊfᐟ ᐊ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ ᐊ judgᐁ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᐁxᐯᐨᐟ ᑐ rᐁᒉᐃvᐁ ᐊᐢᓯᐢᑕᐣᒉ frᐅᒼ dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl ᐊᐣd frᐅᒼ ᐊ ᑊrᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ rᐁᐳrᐟ (ᐸrᐊ 93 ᐳᐃᐣᐟ 7)᙮ ᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓴᒣ ᑎᒣ, ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᒪᑫᐢ ᐃᐟ ᐨlᐁᐊr ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐁvᐁᐣ uᐣrᐁᑊrᐁᓭᐣᑌd ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐁᐣᑎᐟlᐁd ᑐ rᐁlᕀ uᐳᐣ ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ)᙮ ᐊ ᐣuᒼbᐁr ᐅf ᑊrᐊᐨᑎᒐl quᐁᐢᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐊrᐃᓭ: ᐦᐅᐤ ᐃᐧll rᐁlᐁvᐊᐣᐟ ᐃᐣfᐅrᒪᑎᐅᐣ ᒍᒣ bᐁfᐅrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐃᐢ uᐣrᐁᑊrᐁᓭᐣᑌd? ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒐᓭ ᐅf rᐁᑊrᐁᓭᐣᑌd ᐊᐨᐨuᓭd ᐯrᓱᐣᐢ, ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐢ ᑐ bᐁ dᐅᓀ ᐃf dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl dᐅ ᓄᐟ dᐅ ᐟᐦᐁ jᐅb ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᐃᐣ ᑌrᒼᐢ ᐅf ᒪᑭᐣg ᐢubᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᐅᐣ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ? ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐃf dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl, ᐁvᐁᐣ ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐃᐧᐢᐦ ᑐ ᒪᑫ ᐊᑊᑊrᐅᑊrᐃᐊᑌ ᐢubᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣᐢ, dᐅ ᓄᐟ ᐠᓄᐤ ᐦᐅᐤ ᑐ gᐅ ᐊbᐅuᐟ fᐃᐣdᐃᐣg ᐅuᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ ᐊvᐊᐃlᐊblᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ fᐅr ᐟᐦᐁ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊr ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr?

ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᐟᕀᐯᐢ ᐅf ᓯᐟuᐊᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐊrᐁ lᐃᑫlᕀ ᑐ ᐅᐨᐨur᙮ ᐃᐣdᐁᐁd, ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᒥgᐦᐟ ᐁᐧll bᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓄrᒼ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ ᐊᐢᐢuᒣᐢ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᑊrᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ rᐁᐳrᐟᐢ ᐃᐧll ᑊlᐊᕀ ᐊ vᐁrᕀ ᓯgᓂfᐃᒐᐣᐟ rᐅlᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᐟᕀᐯᐢ ᐅf ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣgᐢ᙮ fᐅr ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ rᐁᐳrᐟ ᑐ ᐦᐊvᐁ ᐊᐣ ᐃᒼᐸᐨᐟ ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, ᐟᐦᐁ ᐯrᓱᐣ ᑊrᐁᐸrᐃᐣg ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᐳrᐟ ᒼuᐢᐟ ᐦᐊvᐁ ᐢuffᐃᒋᐁᐣᐟ ᐠᓄᐤlᐁdgᐁ ᐊᐣd uᐣdᐁrᐢᑕᐣdᐃᐣg ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᑐ ᐅbᑕᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓀᒉᐢᓴrᕀ bᐊᐨᐠgrᐅuᐣd ᐃᐣfᐅrᒪᑎᐅᐣ frᐅᒼ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁr ᐊᐣd ᐦᐃᐢ ᐅr ᐦᐁr fᐊᒥlᕀ, ᐊᐣd ᐊlᓱ ᐢuffᐃᒋᐁᐣᐟ ᐠᓄᐤlᐁdgᐁ ᐅf ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐢᐯᒋfᐃᐨ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ ᑐ ᒪᑫ ᐃᐣᑌllᐃgᐁᐣᐟ ᐢuggᐁᐢᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ judgᐁ᙮ ᐧᐦᐃlᐁ ᐟᐦᐁrᐁ ᒪᕀ ᐁᐧll bᐁ ᓱᒣ ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐁᒼᑊlᐅᔦd bᕀ ᑊrᐅvᐃᐣᒋᐊl ᑊrᐅbᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᓭrvᐃᒉᐢ ᒐᐸblᐁ ᐅf ᐯrfᐅrᒥᐣg ᐟᐦᐃᐢ rᐅlᐁ, ᐃᐟ ᐢᐦᐅuld ᓄᐟ bᐁ ᐊᐢᐢuᒣd ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐊrᐁ ᑊrᐁᓭᐣᐟ ᐃᐣ ᐁvᐁrᕀ jurᐃᐢdᐃᐨᑎᐅᐣ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒥᐨ ᐊᐣd dᐃrᐁᐨᐟ dᐃᐢᐨrᐃᒥᓇᑎᐅᐣ fᐊᒉd bᕀ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᒪgᐃᒐllᕀ ᐢᑐᑊ ᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅbᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐅffᐃᒉ᙮

ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐃᐧll judgᐁᐢ, ᐸrᑎᐨulᐊrlᕀ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᓭᐣᒉ ᐅf dᐃlᐃgᐁᐣᐟ dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl, fᐃᐣd ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ ᓀᒉᐢᓴrᕀ ᑐ ᐊllᐅᐤ ᐟᐦᐁᒼ ᑐ ᐁᒼbᐊrᐠ uᐳᐣ ᐊ rᐁᐊlᐃᐢᑎᐨ ᐢ᙮ 718᙮2 (ᐁ) ᐃᐣquᐃrᕀ? ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ lᐃᑫlᕀ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐃᐣᐨrᐁᐊᓭd rᐁlᐃᐊᐣᒉ ᐃᐧll bᐁ ᑊlᐊᒉd uᐳᐣ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍurᑐᐧrᑫrᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ ᐯrᓱᐣᓀl ᐧᐦᐁrᐁ ᐢuᐨ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐃᐣ ᑊlᐊᒉ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᐃᐣdᐃvᐃduᐊlᐢ ᐃᐧll lᐃᑫlᕀ fᐃᐣd ᐟᐦᐁᒼᓭlvᐁᐢ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐃᐣg ᐊdvᐃᒉ ᐊᐣd ᐢubᒥᐢᓯᐅᐣᐢ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ, ᐁᐃᐟᐦᐁr ᐟᐦrᐅugᐦ dᐁfᐁᐣᒉ ᒍuᐣᓭl ᐅr dᐃrᐁᐨᐟlᕀ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ, ᐊᐣd ᐊlᓱ ᑊrᐁᐸrᐃᐣg ᑊrᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒉ rᐁᐳrᐟᐢ, ᐁᐃᐟᐦᐁr ᐃᐣᐢᑌᐊd ᐅf ᐁᐢᑕblᐃᐢᐦᐁd ᓱurᒉᐢ ᐅr ᐃᐣ ᐊddᐃᑎᐅᐣ ᑐ ᐅᐟᐦᐁr rᐁᐳrᐟᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ rᐊᐃᓭᐢ ᐊ ᓭrᐃᐅuᐢ quᐁᐢᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᐢ ᑐ ᐧᐦᐁᐟᐦᐁr ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ ᐨurrᐁᐣᐟlᕀ ᐁxᐃᐢᐟ fᐅr ᐢuᐨ ᐁᐣdᐁᐊvᐅurᐢ ᑐ bᐁ uᐣdᐁrᑕᑫᐣ bᕀ ᒍurᑐᐧrᑫrᐢ ᐊᐣd juᐢᑎᒉ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ ᐯrᓱᐣᓀl᙮ ᐃf ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐊᐣd ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᐊlrᐁᐊdᕀ ᑕxᐁd ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ lᐃᒥᐟ, ᐦᐅᐤ ᐃᐧll ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊddᐃᑎᐅᓇl ᐅᐧrᐠ bᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁd? ᐊᐢ ᐁᐧll, ᐟᐦᐁ quᐁᐢᑎᐅᐣ ᒼuᐢᐟ bᐁ ᐊᐢᑫd ᐃf ᐨurrᐁᐣᐟ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ ᐢᑕff ᐦᐊvᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐟrᐊᐃᓂᐣg ᐊᐣd ᐁxᐯrᑎᓭ ᑐ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐃᐣfᐅrᒪᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᐣd ᐊdvᐃᒉ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁᕀ ᐃᐧll lᐃᑫlᕀ bᐁ ᒐllᐁd ᐅᐣ fᐅr? ᐊᐣd ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐅf jurᐃᐢdᐃᐨᑎᐅᐣᐢ ᐃᐧᐟᐦ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ buᐟ ᓄ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ rᐁᓱurᒉᐢ?

ᒍᐣᐨluᓯᐅᐣ

glᐊduᐁ ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁᐢ ᐊᐣ ᐅᑊᐳrᐟuᓂᐟᕀ ᑐ ᑕᑫ ᓱᒣ ᒣᐊᓂᐣgful ᐢᑌᑊᐢ ᑐ ᒍuᐣᑌr ᐟᐦᐁ ᐃᐣᐨrᐁᐊᓯᐣg rᐁlᐃᐊᐣᒉ ᐅᐣ ᐃᐣᒐrᒉrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᐊᐢ ᐟᐦᐁ rᐁᐢᐳᐣᓭ ᐅf ᒍᐃᒉ ᐅf ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟᐢ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg ᐅf ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ᙮ ᐃᐣ ᐅrdᐁr ᑐ ᒪᑫ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅᒥᓭ rᐁᐊl ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr, ᓭᐣᑌᐣᒋᐣg judgᐁᐢ ᒼuᐢᐟ bᐁ ᑊrᐁᓭᐣᑌd ᐃᐧᐟᐦ rᐁᐊlᐃᐢᑎᐨ ᐊᐢᓭᐢᐢᒣᐣᐟᐢ ᐅf ᐅffᐁᐣdᐁrᐢ ᐊᐣd ᐅf ᓄᐣ jᐊᐃl ᒍᒼᒼuᓂᐟᕀ ᐅᑊᑎᐅᐣᐢ᙮ ᐟᐦᐃᐢ ᓀᐁd ᑊrᐅvᐃdᐁᐢ ᐊ ᒐllᐁᐣgᐁ ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᒍurᑐᐧrᑫr ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼ ᐊᐣd ᑐ ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl ᐊlᑌrᓇᑎvᐁ juᐢᑎᒉ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ᙮ ᐃf ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᑊrᐅgrᐊᒼᐢ ᐊrᐁ ᓄᐟ ᑐ bᐁ fᐅuᐣd ᐊᐧᐣᑎᐣg, ᓭrᐃᐅuᐢ ᒍᐣᓯdᐁrᐊᑎᐅᐣ ᒼuᐢᐟ bᐁ gᐃvᐁᐣ ᑐ bᐅᐟᐦ ᐟrᐊᐃᓂᐣg ᐊᐣd rᐁᓱurᒉ ᓀᐁdᐢ᙮ ᐃᐟ ᐅᐧuld bᐁ uᐣrᐁᐊlᐃᐢᑎᐨ ᑐ ᐁxᐯᐨᐟ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᓴᒣ ᐣuᒼbᐁr ᐅf ᐯᐅᑊlᐁ ᐨurrᐁᐣᐟlᕀ dᐁlᐃvᐁrᐃᐣg ᓭrvᐃᒉᐢ ᒐᐣ ᐢuddᐁᐣlᕀ dᐁlᐃvᐁr ᓯgᓂfᐃᒐᐣᐟlᕀ ᐃᐣᐨrᐁᐊᓭd ᐊᐣd ᐁᐣᐦᐊᐣᒉd ᓭrvᐃᒉᐢ ᐊᐟ ᐊ ᒧᒣᐣᐟ’ᐢ ᓄᑎᒉ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅᑊᐳrᐟuᓂᐟᕀ ᐃᐢ ᐦᐁrᐁ ᓄᐤ ᑐ ᐢᑕrᐟ ᑐ ᒪᑫ rᐁᐊl ᒐᐣgᐁᐢ ᑐ ᐧᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ dᐁᐢᐨrᐃbᐁᐢ ᐊᐢ ᐊ "ᐨrᐃᓯᐢ” ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐨrᐃᒥᓇl juᐢᑎᒉ ᐢᕀᐢᑌᒼ ᐃᐣ ᒐᓇdᐊ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁᓭ ᒐᐣgᐁᐢ ᐦᐅᐁᐧvᐁr ᐃᐧll rᐁquᐃrᐁ ᐊ ᒍᐣᒉrᑌd ᐁffᐅrᐟ frᐅᒼ ᐊ vᐊrᐃᐁᐟᕀ ᐅf ᓱurᒉᐢ ᑐ ᐁᐣᐢurᐁ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ ᐟᐦᐁ ᑊrᐅᒥᓭ ᐅf ᒐᐣgᐁ ᐃᐢ ᓄᐟ lᐅᐢᐟ᙮

1 ᐟᐦᐁ ᐸrᐊgrᐊᑊᐦ ᐣuᒼbᐁrᐢ uᓭd ᐦᐁrᐁ rᐁfᐁr ᑐ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐣuᒼbᐁrᐁd ᐸrᐊgrᐊᑊᐦᐢ ᐃᐣ ᐟᐦᐁ ᒍurᐟ’ᐢ dᐁᒋᓯᐅᐣ ᐃᐣ r v᙮ glᐊduᐁ᙮ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅᐧrd "ᐊbᐅrᐃgᐃᓇl” ᐃᐢ ᒐᐱᑕlᐃzᐁd ᐧᐦᐁᓀvᐁr ᐃᐟ ᐃᐢ uᓭd uᐣlᐁᐢᐢ ᐃ ᐊᒼ dᐃrᐁᐨᐟlᕀ quᐅᑎᐣg ᐊ ᓱurᒉ ᐟᐦᐊᐟ dᐅᐁᐢ ᓄᐟ ᒐᐱᑕlᐃzᐁ ᐟᐦᐁ ᐅᐧrd᙮


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